Tyler, you can absolutely use a 10" wide 17" wheel with these Nitto NT05 tires. You are perfectly safe with with any wheel width that is plus or minus .5" in width over/under the recommended 10.5 inches
The first three numbers give you the width of the tire in mm. So if you are looking at a 315/35/17 tire, this means the tire is 315mm wide. The second set of two numbers is the “aspect ratio” that tells you how tall the sidewall is in millimeters. In the case of the 315/35 tires referenced above that means you take 315 multiple by .35 (35%) to get the sidewall height of 110.25mm. Hope this helps you out.